Answers to Ecology



* Deep Ecology
* Human Ecology
* Industrial Ecology
* Other Ecology


* Various Ecosystem

Various Ecosystem

Antarctic Ecosystem : Aquatic Ecosystem
Business Ecosystem : Closed Ecosystem
Ecosystem Engineer : Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem Valuation : Software Ecosystem

Antarctic Ecosystem

This is the largest ecosystem in the world. This is because it is based on the Ocean as there are very few organisms on land.

In the Antarctic ecosystem the Antarctic krill is the bedrock species of the whole ecosystem of the South Ocean. It is the most important food organism for other species such as whales, seals,
leopard seals, fur seals, crab eater seals, squids, ice fish, penguins, albatrosses, and many other species of birds. The Antarctic Ocean is full of phytoplankton. This is because around the ice continent water rises from the depths to the light flooded surface, hence bringing nutrients from the surface all back into the ocean to the photics zone.

Aquatic Ecosystem

Aquatic is the broad term used for anything based in water. So when we are speaking of an aquatic ecosystem, it can be
either referring to an ecosystem of a pond, lake, river, or ocean.

Business Ecosystem

Business ecosystem is where an economic community is supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and
individuals, i.e. the organisms of the business world. The adoption of business ecosystem was widely use around the world in the beginning of 1990’s. It was concept that was originated by an author named James F. Moore. The concept evolved around strategic planning in the high tech community of business.

The business ecosystem works by:

  1. The economic community producing goods and services of value to customers, who are members of the ecosystem.
2. Members of the organizations includes those who are:
  • Suppliers;
  • Lead Producers;
  • Competitors; and
  • Other Stakeholders.
  1. As time progresses, the members of the organizations will co-evolves each of their capabilities and role. They will tend to bring into line their organization with the direction set by one or more central companies. Those companies who hold leadership roles may change over time according to suit the market demands.

  2. The main purpose of the ecosystem leader is maintained values in its community. The then allows the member to move towards sharing visions in aligning their investments and to seek mutual supportive roles.
The concept and associated methods of business ecosystem are vastly becoming part of many large companies standard practice of strategies. It has also been broadly applied to a large variety
of problems in network-centric strategy making and decisions. It has also been applied to development of foreign policy and national and regional economics.

Closed Ecosystem

Closed Ecosystem or more commonly known as closed ecological systems (CES). As the name suggests, they are ecosystems that are "closed".

Hence, they do not exchange any matters outside the system. This term is most often used to describe smaller manmade ecosystems, such as those scientifically discovery and
that can potentially serve as a life support system during space voyage, at space stations or in submarines.

When the term "closed ecological system" is use, it is often misinterpret as meaning a closed system in the usual sense, because energy including light and heat is able to enter and leave the system, provided that matter does not.

Under this system, any waste produces by one species must be used by at least one other species. It is also vital that any closed ecological system must contain at least one autotrophic organism. Whilst both chemotrophic and phototrophic organisms are plausible, more or less most closed ecological systems to date are supported by phototroph such as green algae.


Ecosystem Engineer

It is all about any organism that can creates or modifies habitats. There are two common different types of ecosystem engineers that are identified:

  1. Allogenic Engineer – these are those who modify the environment by automatically altering materials from one to another.
  1. Autogenic Engineer – these are those who modify the environment by modifying themselves.

Often introduced species are often ecosystem engineer. We say this because it can change and modify the distribution and population numbers in its introduced surrounding. These can include native plants, animal and bird species.

Ecosystem Services

It is a service that processes by which the natural environment produces resources useful for people. It can include anything such as:

  • Providing better condition in clean water and air
  • Pollination of crops and plants
  • Lessening of environmental hazards and disasters
  • The controlling of pest and diseases.

Ecosystem Valuation

This is a tool commonly used to determine the impact of human activities on an environmental system. Ecosystem valuation is preformed and assessed by assigning an economic value to an ecosystem or its ecosystem services.

The simplest way to perform an ecosystem valuation is by valuing that ecosystem's with the equivalent to its ecological
yield values as it would be on the commodity markets. Consequently, a price can then be applied on the natural capital of an ecosystem based on the price of natural resources it yield in that particular period usually a year.

There can be 4 different types of values that can be assigned to an ecosystem:

  1. The direct use of value, is the value accredited to direct consumption of ecosystem services.
  2. The indirect use of value, is the value recognized to the indirect operation of the ecosystem services. This can be through the positive externalities that the ecosystem provides itself.
  3. There is the option value where the value credited is to preserve the option to operate the ecosystem services at a later date (future).
4. Lastly, the non-use of any value is the value recognized to the pure existence of an ecosystem. It consist of 3 main components:
    1. The value based on the welfare of what the ecosystem may give other people;
    2. The value based on the welfare of what the ecosystem may provide for generations to come; and
    3. The value based on knowing that the ecosystem actually exists.

    The methods used to estimate the value of an ecosystem service cannot result from the market price that includes stated and revealed preference methods. The stated preference methods seek answers from something such as contingent valuation where people are asked for their willingness to pay for a certain ecosystem service. And the revealed preference methods include such things as hedonic pricing and the travel cost method where it uses the relation with a market good or service to estimated the willingness of people to pay for the use of this service.


Software Ecosystem

This often refers a functioning unit where any software components in which it is combined, or existing within a computer. In most computer system the common core
components which forms part of the software ecosystem will include:

  • a kernel
  • a windowing system
  • a desktop environment
  • a compiler
  • a text editor
  • a web browser
  • an email client
  • a word processor
  • other components – this depends on the user’s purpose of what the computer is use for.

In the market today there are vast varieties of software components to select from with very competitive prices. There are also many components out on the market where they have similar functions and may already co-exist on the computer. But replica components cannot be use at the same time because of their specific function such as kernel.

In software ecosystem where a component becomes weak, unreliable, or unable to adapt to changing circumstances quickly because of a lack of flexibility will often quickly be replace by a more suitable replacement.

Typical software components are free software, proprietary software, or some hybrid. There will be some software licensing in which it may be affect by a combination of these components into one software ecosystem.


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