Answers to Ecology



* Deep Ecology
* Human Ecology
* Industrial Ecology
* Other Ecology


* Various Ecosystem

Industrial Ecology

Industrial ecology was first introduced in 1973 at a seminar of Economic Commission in Europe in Warsaw Poland by Harry Zvi Evan. It was defined that industrial ecology is a systematic analysis of industrial
operation including various factors such as:

  • Technology
  • Environment
  • Natural Resources
  • Bio Medical aspects
  • Institutional
  • Legal matters
  • Socio-economic aspects
It was until 1989 in the Scientific American proposed by Robert Frosch that industrial ecology was about the shifting of industrial development from:
  • Open loop systems - in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste; or
  • Closed loop systems – where waste become inputs for new processes.

Frosch theory was based on answering questions such as:

  • Why would the outputs of an industry be the input of another industry, hence reducing use of raw materials, pollution and saving on waste?
  • Why does our industrial system behave like an ecosystem?
  • How does the waste product of one specie become the resources to another species?
This type of ecology does not offer to see an industrial system as being separate from the biosphere, but instead as an ecosystem in particular cases.
It is based on the infrastructural capital rather than on natural capital. The idea was that if natural systems don't produce waste in them, it should then be model after natural ones if it is were to be sustainable.

Under the Natural Capitalism strategy, industrial ecology is one of the objectives. Other objectives include:

  • General energy and material conservation goals;
  • Refining commodity markets and product stewardship; and
  • Service economy.

Under this strategy it discourages any forms of immoral purchasing that might take place from lack of knowledge of what really goes on from a distance and indirect political economy that values natural capital greatly. It also relies on instructional capital structure,where design and maintenance each has exceptional industrial ecology.

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